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Indium: a metal that can be bitten through

Introduction Indium is a fusible, sparkly, silvery-white metal with a melting point of 157°C (314°F).This temperature is one of the reference points on the international temperature scale. It is soft enough to cut with a knife or bend with your hands… or even bite through! If you bend a piece of indium, you will hear a crunch – a testament to changes in the metal’s crystal lattice. Indium ions tint flames indigo. History of discovery German scientists Ferdinand Reich and Jerome Richter discovered indium in 1863. Reich was studying a zinc ore, sphalerite, hoping it would contain a sample of the newfound element thallium. As Reich was colorblind, he asked his colleague Richter to check the spectrum for him. The scientists were surprised: instead of the green line they were expecting, Richter noticed a rich violet-blue line that had not been seen before. Reich and Richter realized that they had found a new element. They called it the Latin word indicum – "purple" or "indigo." The scientists later quarreled over who discovered this element, with Richter claiming to be the sole discoverer. Richter continued seeking this metal. Three years later, an indium ingot weighing 0.5 kg was demonstrated at the Paris Universal Exposition. Nature Pure indium metal can be found in nature, but most of it is produced as a byproduct when melting zinc ore. Based on current consumption, scientists suggest that its supply will meet human needs for just the next 13 years.

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How to make a Spiral Fidget Spinner out of Gallium Liquid metal. I used a Plasticine mold to cast a home made fidget spinner toy.


The story and science behind one of the most important materials in modern electronics. What makes ITO essential? How does it get its unique properties? In what applications is it commonly used?


This video is for researchers and engineers interested in indium metal. It will cover the applications and future uses.

Liquid Metal

Gallium metal melts at about 30ºC 86ºF so you can melt it in your hand or warm water, and pour it into molds. Great fun science experiment.


What does the element tellurium look like?


Bismuth is non-toxic and has a number of very interesting properties. For best results I recommend using at least 4 or 5 pounds of bismuth for the surface crystallization method demonstrated in the video. The deeper the pool of bismuth is in the pan the better, because the crystals will have extra room to grow before they touch the bottom. The more you use the more impressive your results will be.


How to levitate a magnet with no batteries, external power, or trickery. It floats on pure SCIENCE! Strong magnets can be really dangerous, especially if you have more than one. The 1" cylinder magnet that I use for this project could break bones if you let your hand get between it and another large magnet as they snap together. Smaller magnets that are pulled against a larger one might shatter on impact and fire out sharp chips. I recommend eye protection while working with them. Lastly, don't purchase strong magnets if you live around anyone with a pacemaker. Pacemakers are adjusted magnetically and could malfunction if exposed to strong magnetic fields


Bismuth is a chemical element with a very low melting point for metal. You can melt this on your stove and it crystallises into incredible shapes. While it's cooling, oxidation on the surface produces different colours depending on the temperature in that particular area, so you can get some amazing rainbow effects. Sadly this is NOT a holo crystal since it doesn't change colour when you move it.

Gallium used in cans

How dangerous is gallium metal? The man dropped on the metal lock and broke the lock into pieces!


Gallium is a chemical element, its chemical symbol It is Ga, the atomic number is 31, and it is a metal depletion. In nature, it is often dispersed in bauxite, sphalerite and other ores in trace amounts.

Liquid Metal

In this video, I'll be talking about the very interesting element Mercury. I try to cover as much as I can, including its properties, its history and interesting reactions.


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